References

AHDB (2017) The Encyclopaedia of Arable Weeds. Kenilworth. Available at: https://cereals.ahdb.org.uk/media/1117908/G47-The-encyclopaedia-of-arable-weeds-2015-branding-.pdf.

Alins, G. et al. (2016) ‘Abundance and richness of pollinators in organic versus conventional apple orchards.’, Ecofruit. 17th International Conference on Organic Fruit-Growing: Proceedings, 15-17 February 2016, Hohenheim, Germany, pp. 266–267.

Altieri, M. A. and Nicholls, C. I. (2017) ‘The adaptation and mitigation potential of traditional agriculture in a changing climate’, Climatic Change, 140(1), pp. 33–45. doi: 10.1007/s10584-013-0909-y.

Álvarez, H. A. et al. (2019) ‘Semi-natural habitat complexity affects abundance and movement of natural enemies in organic olive orchards’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 285(July), p. 106618. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2019.106618.

Armengot, L. et al. (2013) ‘Weed harrowing in organically grown cereal crops avoids yield losses without reducing weed diversity’, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(2), pp. 405–411. doi: 10.1007/s13593-012-0107-8.

Assandri, G. et al. (2017) ‘Nest density, nest-site selection, and breeding success of birds in vineyards: Management implications for conservation in a highly intensive farming system’, Biological Conservation, 205, pp. 23–33. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.11.020.

Azeez, G. (2000) The biodiversity benefits of organic farming., Soil Association Policy Report. Bristol. doi: 10.1079/9780851997407.0077.

Bailey, A. P. et al. (2003) ‘A comparison of energy use in conventional and integrated arable farming systems in the UK’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 97(1–3), pp. 241–253. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00115-4.

Bajgai, Y. et al. (2015) ‘Comparison of organic and conventional managements on yields, nutrients and weeds in a corn-cabbage rotation’, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 30(2), pp. 132–142. doi: 10.1017/S1742170513000264.

Ball, B. C. et al. (2005) ‘The role of crop rotations in determining soil structure and crop growth conditions’, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 85(5), pp. 557–577. doi: 10.4141/S04-078.

Barbieri, P., Pellerin, S. and Nesme, T. (2017) ‘Comparing crop rotations between organic and conventional farming’, Scientific Reports, 7(1), pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14271-6.

Basset-Mens, C. and Van Der Werf, H. M. G. (2005) ‘Scenario-based environmental assessment of farming systems: The case of pig production in France’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2004.05.007.

Batáry, P. et al. (2012) ‘Responses of plant, insect and spider biodiversity to local and landscape scale management intensity in cereal crops and grasslands’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 146(1), pp. 130–136. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.10.018.

Batáry, P. et al. (2013) ‘Organic Farming Favours Insect-Pollinated over Non-Insect Pollinated Forbs in Meadows and Wheat Fields’, PLoS ONE, 8(1), pp. 1–7. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054818.

Batáry, P., Matthiesen, T. and Tscharntke, T. (2010) ‘Landscape-moderated importance of hedges in conserving farmland bird diversity of organic vs. conventional croplands and grasslands’, Biological Conservation, 143(9), pp. 2020–2027. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.05.005.

Beckie, H. J. (2006) ‘Herbicide-Resistant Weeds: Management Tactics and Practices’, Weed Technology, 20(3), pp. 793–814. doi: 10.1614/WT-05-084R1.1.

Bengtsson, J., Ahnström, J. and Weibull, A. C. (2005) ‘The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: A meta-analysis’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 42(2), pp. 261–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01005.x.

Benton, T. G. et al. (2017) British Food- What Role Should UK Food Producers have in Feeding the UK? Research Report. Bradford.

Berry, N. A. et al. (1996) ‘New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science Abundance and diversity of beneficial arthropods in conventional and “organic” carrot crops in New Zealand’, New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 24(4), pp. 307–313. doi: 10.1080/01140671.1996.9513967.

Berry, P., Ogilvy, S. and Gardener, S. (2004) Integrated farming and biodiversity (English Nature Research Report 634). Peterborough.

Biesmeijer, J. C. et al. (2006) ‘Parallel Declines in Pollinators and Insect-Pollinated Plants in Britain and the Netherlands’, Science, 313(5785), pp. 351 LP – 354. doi: 10.1126/science.1127863.

Blair, N. et al. (2006) ‘Long-term management impacts on soil C, N and physical fertility. Part II: Bad Lauchstadt static and extreme FYM experiments’, Soil and Tillage Research, 91(1–2), pp. 39–47. doi: 10.1016/j.still.2005.11.001.

Borin, M. et al. (2010) ‘Multiple functions of buffer strips in farming areas’, European Journal of Agronomy, 32(1), pp. 103–111. doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2009.05.003.

Boutin, C., Baril, A. and Martin, P. A. (2008) ‘Plant diversity in crop fields and woody hedgerows of organic and conventional farms in contrasting landscapes’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 123(1–3), pp. 185–193. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2007.05.010.

Bouvier, J.-C. et al. (2005) ‘Effects of apple orchard management strategies on the great tit (Parus major) in southeastern france’, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(11), pp. 2846–2852. doi: https://doi.org/10.1897/04-588R1.1.

Bouvier, J.-C. et al. (2011) ‘Apple orchard pest control strategies affect bird communities in southeastern France’, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30(1), pp. 212–219. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.377.

Brown, R. W. (1999) ‘Margin/field interfaces and small mammals’, Aspects of Applied Biology, 54(54), pp. 203–206.

Bruggisser, O. T., Schmidt-Entling, M. H. and Bacher, S. (2010) ‘Effects of vineyard management on biodiversity at three trophic levels’, Biological Conservation, 143(6), pp. 1521–1528. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.03.034.

Caprio, E. et al. (2015) ‘Organic versus conventional systems in viticulture: Comparative effects on spiders and carabids in vineyards and adjacent forests’, Agricultural Systems, 136, pp. 61–69. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2015.02.009.

Carlsson, G. and Huss-Danell, K. (2003) ‘Nitrogen fixation in perennial forage legumes in the field’, Plant and Soil. doi: 10.1023/A:1024847017371.

Carvell, C. et al. (2007) ‘Comparing the efficacy of agri-environment schemes to enhance bumble bee abundance and diversity on arable field margins’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(1), pp. 29–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01249.x.

Cerutti, A. K. et al. (2011) ‘A review of studies applying environmental impact assessment methods on fruit production systems’, Journal of Environmental Management. Academic Press, pp. 2277–2286. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.04.018.

Chamberlain, D. E. et al. (2010) ‘Does organic farming benefit farmland birds in winter?’, Biology Letters, 6(1), pp. 82–84. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2009.0643.

Chamberlain, D. E., Wilson, J. D. and Fuller, R. J. (1999) ‘A comparison of bird populations on organic and conventional farm systems in southern Britain’, Biological Conservation, 88(3), pp. 307–320. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00124-4.

Chambers, B. J., Smith, K. A. and Pain, B. F. (2000) ‘Strategies to encourage better use of nitrogen in animal manures’, Soil Use and Management, 16(s1), pp. 157–166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2000.tb00220.x.

Clough, Y. et al. (2007) ‘Alpha and beta diversity of arthropods and plants in organically and conventionally managed wheat fields’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(4), pp. 804–812. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01294.x.

Clough, Y., Kruess, A. and Tscharntke, T. (2007) ‘Local and landscape factors in differently managed arable fields affect the insect herbivore community of a non-crop plant species’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(1), pp. 22–28. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01239.x.

Crittenden, S. J. et al. (2015) ‘Soil physical quality in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming’, Soil and Tillage Research, 154, pp. 136–144. doi: 10.1016/j.still.2015.06.018.

Crowder, D. W. et al. (2010) ‘LETTERS Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control’, Nature, 466(1). doi: 10.1038/nature09183.

Dalal, R. C. et al. (2010) ‘Green waste compost reduces nitrous oxide emissions from feedlot manure applied to soil’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2009.06.010.

Dawson, J. C., Huggins, D. R. and Jones, S. S. (2008) ‘Characterizing nitrogen use efficiency in natural and agricultural ecosystems to improve the performance of cereal crops in low-input and organic agricultural systems’, Field Crops Research. Elsevier, pp. 89–101. doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2008.01.001.

Decaëns, T. et al. (2006) ‘The values of soil animals for conservation biology’, European Journal of Soil Biology, 42(SUPPL. 1). doi: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2006.07.001.

DEFRA (2017) Ecological Focus Areas: features on farms in England 2015/16. London.

DEFRA (2018) Reviewing the Opportunities , Barriers and Constraints for Organic Management Techniques to Improve Sustainability of Conventional Farming. Final Project Report Prepared as part of Defra Project OF03111 Project, pp. 1–128. Available at: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=14421_Final_report_OF03101_OF03111.pdf.

Dekker, S. E. M. et al. (2012) ‘Total loss and distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in the outdoor run of organic laying hens’, British Poultry Science. doi: 10.1080/00071668.2012.749342.

Diacono, M. and Montemurro, F. (2011) ‘Long-term effects of organic amendments on soil fertility’, in Sustainable Agriculture. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0394-0_34.

Diekötter, T. et al. (2010) ‘Landscape and management effects on structure and function of soil arthropod communities in winter wheat’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 137(1–2), pp. 108–112. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2010.01.008.

Dimambro, M. et al. (2018) Countryside Stewardship organic management and conversion options : A scoping study to establish a monitoring protocol . Literature review. CAWR, Coventry. Available at: https://pure.coventry.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/40416921/Dimambro_Rayns_Steiner_and_Carey_2018.pdf.

Döring, T. F. et al. (2012) ‘Legume based plant mixtures for delivery of multiple ecosystem services: weed diversity and weed control’, Agriculture and the Environment, 9(Valuing Ecosystems: Policy, Economic and Management Interactions), pp. 163–168.

Döring, T. F. et al. (2017) ‘Weeds in Organic Fertility-Building Leys: Aspects of Species Richness and Weed Management’, Organic Farming; Vol 3, Issue 1 (2017). Available at: http://www.librelloph.com/organicfarming/article/view/of-3.1.51.

Dougherty, M. C. et al. (2009) ‘Nitrate and Escherichia coli NAR analysis in tile drain effluent from a mixed tree intercrop and monocrop system’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 131(1–2), pp. 77–84. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.09.011.

Doyle, C. J. and Topp, C. F. E. (2004) ‘The economic opportunities for increasing the use of forage legumes in north European livestock systems under both conventional and organic management’, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. doi: 10.1079/rafs200015.

Edwards, S. A. (2005) ‘Product quality attributes associated with outdoor pig production’, Livestock Production Science. doi: 10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.11.028.

van Elsen, T. (1989) ‘Ackerwildkraut-Gesellschaften herbizidfreier Ackerränder und des herbzidbehandelten Bestandesinneren im Vergleich’, Tuevenia, 9, pp. 75–105.

van Elsen, T. (1994) Die Fluktuation von Ackerwildkraut-Gesellschaften und ihre Beeinflussung durch van Elsen T (1994) Fruchtfolge und Bodenbearbeitungs-Zeitpunkt. Universität Kassel.

Eriksson, I. S. et al. (2005) ‘Environmental systems analysis of pig production: The impact of feed choice’, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. doi: 10.1065/lca2004.06.160.

EU (2007) ‘Council Directive 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products’, Official Journal of the European Communities L 189, 2007(394), pp. 1–23.

EU (2008) ‘Commission regulation (EC) no 889/2008 of 5 September 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of council regulation (EC) no 834/2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products with regard to organic production, labelling and co’, Official Journal of the European Union, L 250(834), pp. 1–84.

Eyre, M. D., Shotton, P. N. and Leifert, C. (2008) ‘Crop Type and Management Effects on Ground Beetle Species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Activity in an Extensive Plot Trial’, in Neuhoff, D. et al. (eds) Cultivating the Future Based on Science. Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR). Modena: ISOFAR.

Feber, R. E. et al. (1997) ‘The effects of organic farming on pest and non-pest butterfly abundance’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 64(2), pp. 133–139. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(97)00031-5.

Feber, R. E. et al. (2007) ‘A comparison of butterfly populations on organically and conventionally managed farmland’, Journal of Zoology, 273(1), pp. 30–39. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00296.x.

Finch. T. et al. (2020) ‘Optimising nature conservation outcomes for a given region-wide level of food production’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 57, pp. 985-994. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13594

Fischer, J. et al. (2014) ‘Land sparing versus land sharing: Moving forward’, Conservation Letters. doi: 10.1111/conl.12084.

Flavel, T. C. and Murphy, D. V. (2006) ‘Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization Rates after Application of Organic Amendments to Soil’, Journal of Environmental Quality, 35(1), pp. 183–193. doi: 10.2134/jeq2005.0022.

Fletcher, K. (2018) Getting the best out of under-sown cereals, The Scottish Farmer. Available at: https://www.thescottishfarmer.co.uk/arable/16159538.getting-best-under-sown-cereals/ (Accessed: 7 February 2021).

Fließbach, A. and Mäder, P. (2000) ‘Microbial biomass and size-density fractions differ between soils of organic and conventional agricultural systems’, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32(6), pp. 757–768. doi: 10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00197-2.

Freemark, K. E. and Kirk, D. A. (2001) ‘Birds on organic and conventional farms in Ontario: Partitioning effects of habitat and practices on species composition and abundance’, Biological Conservation, 101(3), pp. 337–350. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00079-9.

Frieben, B. (1990) ‘Bedeutung des Organischen Landbaus für den Erhalt von Ackerwildkräutern’, Natur und Landschaft, 65, pp. 379–382.

Frieben, B. et al. (2012) ‘Aufwertung der Agrarlandschaft durch ökologischen Landbau. Teil 1.’, Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung, 44, pp. 108–114.

Froidevaux, J. S. P., Louboutin, B. and Jones, G. (2017) ‘Does organic farming enhance biodiversity in Mediterranean vineyards? A case study with bats and arachnids’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 249(August), pp. 112–122. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.08.012.

Fuller, R. J. et al. (2005) ‘Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa’, Biology Letters, 1(4), pp. 431–434. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2005.0357.

Gabriel, D. et al. (2010) ‘Scale matters: The impact of organic farming on biodiversity at different spatial scales’, Ecology Letters, 13(7), pp. 858–869. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01481.x.

Gallai, N. et al. (2009) ‘Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline’, Ecological Economics, 68(3), pp. 810–821. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.06.014.

Garnett, T. et al. (2017) Grazed and confused? : Ruminating on cattle, grazing systems, methane, nitrous oxide, the soil carbon sequestration question – and what it all means for greenhouse gas emissions. Oxford: FCRN. Available at: https://edepot.wur.nl/427016.

Gaudin, A. C. M. et al. (2015) ‘Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability’, PLoS ONE, 10(2). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113261.

Geiger, F. et al. (2010) ‘Landscape composition influences farm management effects on farmland birds in winter: A pan-European approach’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 139(4), pp. 571–577. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2010.09.018.

Geiger, F. (2011) Agricultural intensification and farmland birds. S.n. Available at: https://edepot.wur.nl/157843.

Genghini, M., Gellini, S. and Gustin, M. (2006) ‘Organic and integrated agriculture: The effects on bird communities in orchard farms in northern Italy’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 15(9), pp. 3077–3094. doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-5400-2.

Gottwald, F. (2010) ‘Segetalflora’, in Stein-Bachinger, K., Fuchs, S., and Gottwald, F. (eds) Optimierung des ökologischen Landbaus ‘Naturschutzhof Brodowin’., pp. 98–105.

Goulson, D. (2003) ‘Conserving wild bees for crop pollination’, Food, Agriculture & Environment, 1(1), pp. 142–144.

Green, R. E. et al. (2005) ‘Farming and the fate of wild nature’, Science. doi: 10.1126/science.1106049.

Gunapala, N. and Scow, K. M. (1998) ‘Dynamics of soil microbial biomass and activity in conventional and organic farming systems’, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30(6), pp. 805–816. doi: 10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00162-4.

GWCT (2018) Undersown cereals. Available at: https://www.gwct.org.uk/farming/advice/habitat-issues/undersown-cereals/ (Accessed: 7 February 2021).

Haas, G., Wetterich, F. and Köpke, U. (2001) ‘Comparing intensive, extensified and organic grassland farming in southern Germany by process life cycle assessment’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 83(1–2), pp. 43–53. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00160-2.

Halberg, N. et al. (2010) ‘Impact of organic pig production systems on CO2 emission, C sequestration and nitrate pollution’, Agronomy for Sustainable Development. doi: 10.1051/agro/2010006.

Hald, A. B. (1999) ‘Weed vegetation (wild flora) of long established organic versus conventional cereal fields in Denmark’, Annals of Applied Biology, 134(3), pp. 307–314. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1999.tb05269.x.

Hallmann, C. A. et al. (2017) ‘More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas’, PLoS ONE, 12(10). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0185809.

Hancock, M. H. and Wilson, J. D. (2003) ‘Winter habitat associations of seed-eating passerines on scottish farmland’, Bird Study, 50(2), pp. 116–130. doi: 10.1080/00063650309461303.

Happe, A.-K. et al. (2018) ‘Small-scale agricultural landscapes and organic management support wild bee communities of cereal field boundaries’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 254, pp. 92–98. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.11.019.

Hartmann, M. et al. (2015a) ‘Distinct soil microbial diversity under long-term organic and conventional farming’, The ISME Journal, 9, pp. 1177–1194. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.210.

Hartmann, M. et al. (2015b) ‘Distinct soil microbial diversity under long-term organic and conventional farming’, ISME Journal. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.210.

Hawes, C. et al. (2010) ‘Arable plant communities as indicators of farming practice’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 138(1–2), pp. 17–26. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2010.03.010.

Hijbeek, R. et al. (2018) ‘Nitrogen fertiliser replacement values for organic amendments appear to increase with N application rates’, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 110(1), pp. 105–115. doi: 10.1007/s10705-017-9875-5.

Hjorth, M. et al. (2011) ‘Solid–Liquid Separation of Animal Slurry in Theory and Practice BT’’, in Lichthouse, E. et al. (eds) Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 953–986. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-0394-0_43.

Hodgson, J. A. et al. (2010) ‘Comparing organic farming and land sparing: optimizing yield and butterfly populations at a landscape scale’, Ecology Letters, 13(11), pp. 1358–1367. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01528.x.

Hole, D. G. et al. (2005) ‘Does organic farming benefit biodiversity?’, Biological Conservation, 122(1), pp. 113–130. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2004.07.018.

Holzschuh, A. et al. (2007) ‘Diversity of flower-visiting bees in cereal fields: Effects of farming system, landscape composition and regional context’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(1), pp. 41–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01259.x.

Holzschuh, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I. and Tscharntke, T. (2008) ‘Agricultural landscapes with organic crops support higher pollinator diversity’, Oikos, 117(3), pp. 354–361. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16303.x.

Holzschuh, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I. and Tscharntke, T. (2010) ‘How do landscape composition and configuration, organic farming and fallow strips affect the diversity of bees, wasps and their parasitoids?’, Journal of Animal Ecology, 79(2), pp. 491–500. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01642.x.

Hovi, M., Sundrum, A. and Thamsborg, S. M. (2003) ‘Animal health and welfare in organic livestock production in Europe: Current state and future challenges’, in Livestock Production Science. doi: 10.1016/S0301-6226(02)00320-2.

Hutton, S. A. and Giller, P. S. (2003) ‘The effects of the intensification of agriculture on northern temperate dung beetle communities’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 40(6), pp. 994–1007. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2003.00863.x.

Huusela-Veistola, E. and Hyvönen, T. (2006) ‘Rotational fallows in support of functional biodiversity’, in Rossing, W. A., Eggenschwiler, L., and Poehling, H.-M. (eds) Landscape Management for Functional Biodiversity, pp. 61–64. Available at: http://jukuri.luke.fi/handle/10024/462315.

IBERS (2014) Grass-clover leys in organic rotations. Gogerddan. Available at: http://www.organiccentrewales.org.uk/uploads/211.01__grass_clover_leys.pdf.

IFOAM (2005) Principles of Organic Agriculture, Ifoam. Bonn: IFOAM. Available at: http://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-landmarks/principles-organic-agriculture.

IFOAM (2008) Definition of Organic Agriculture. Available at: https://www.ifoam.bio/why-organic/organic-landmarks/definition-organic (Accessed: 27 January 2021).

IFOAM EG (2018) Strategy for the minimisation of copper in organic farming in Europe. Brussels. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CONSLEG:1991R2092:20080514:EN:PDF.

IFOAM Organics Europe (2021) Organic in Europe: Prospects and Developments for Organic in National CAP Strategic Plans. IFOAM Organics Europe, Brussels. Available at: https://www.organicseurope.bio/content/uploads/2021/06/ifoameu_advocacy_CAP_StrategicPlansAnd25Target_202106.pdf?dd

Im, J. S. et al. (2015) ‘Comparison of community structure and diversity of epigeal spiders between conventional and organic apple orchards’, in 한국응용곤충학회. 정기총회 및 춘계학술발표회, p. 192. Available at: http://db.koreascholar.com/Article?code=302288.

Joest, R. (2018) ‘Wie wirksam sind Vertragsnaturschutzmaßnahmen für Feldvögel? Untersuchungen an Feldlerchenfenstern, extensivierten Getreideäckern und Ackerbrachen in der Hellwegbörde (NRW)’, Vogelwelt, 138, pp. 109–121.

Katayama, N. (2016) ‘Bird diversity and abundance in organic and conventional apple orchards in northern Japan’, Nature Publishing Group. doi: 10.1038/srep34210.

Katayama, N. et al. (2019) ‘Biodiversity and yield under different land-use types in orchard/vineyard landscapes: A meta-analysis’, Biological Conservation, 229(November 2018), pp. 125–133. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.11.020.

Knight, M. E. et al. (2009) ‘Bumblebee nest density and the scale of available forage in arable landscapes’, Insect Conservation and Diversity. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4598.2009.00049.x.

Knox, O. G. G. et al. (2011) ‘Revisiting the Multiple Benefits of Historical Crop Rotations within Contemporary UK Agricultural Systems’, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35(2), pp. 163–179. doi: 10.1080/10440046.2011.539128.

Knudsen, M. T. et al. (2017) ‘Characterization factors for land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment based on direct measures of plant species richness in European farmland in the “Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forest” biome’, Science of the Total Environment, 580(December 2016), pp. 358–366. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.172.

Kohler, P. (2015) Verbreitung und Zusammensetzung der Segetalflora im Naturpark Barnim. Hochschule für Nachhaltige Entwicklung (HNE).

Kragten, S. et al. (2011) ‘Abundance of invertebrate prey for birds on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands’, Bird Conservation International, 21, pp. 1–11. doi: 10.1017/S0959270910000079.

Kragten, S. and de Snoo, G. R. (2008) ‘Field-breeding birds on organic and conventional arable farms in the Netherlands’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 126(3–4), pp. 270–274. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.02.006.

Krauss, J., Gallenberger, I. and Steffan-Dewenter, I. (2011) ‘Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields’, PLoS ONE, 6(5), p. 19502. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019502.

Lampkin, N. et al. (1999) The Policy and Regulatory Environment for Organic Farming in Europe. Organic Farming in Europe: Economics and Policy1. Universität Hohenheim, Stuttgart-Hohenheim. Available at: https://orgprints.org/id/eprint/8397/

Lampkin, N. et al. (2015) The Role of Agroecology in Sustainable Intensification.Report for the Land Use Policy Group. Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm and Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust. Available at: https://www.nature.scot/role-agroecology-sustainable-intensification-lupg-report

Lampkin, N. et al. (2020) Using Eco-schemes in the new CAP: a guide for managing authorities. IFOAM Organic Europe, FIBL and IEEP, Brussels. Available at: https://www.organicseurope.bio/content/uploads/2020/06/ifoam-eco-schemes-web_compressed-1.pdf?dd

Lampkin N., Sanders J. (2021) Policy support for organic farming in the European Union: 2011, 2015 and 2019. Project report. Thünen Institute, Braunschweig.

Lang, M. et al. (2016) ‘Reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer. What are the optimal sowing rates?’, Ecology and Evolution, 6(15), pp. 5506–5516. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2303.

Lassaletta, L. et al. (2014) ‘50 year trends in nitrogen use efficiency of world cropping systems: The relationship between yield and nitrogen input to cropland’, Environmental Research Letters, 9(10). doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/105011.

Latif, M. A. et al. (1992) ‘Effects of legumes on soil physical quality in a maize crop’, Plant and Soil: An International Journal on Plant-Soil Relationships. doi: 10.1007/BF00012802.

LEAF (2021) Integrated Farm Management. Available at: https://leafuk.org/farming/integrated-farm-management (Accessed: 14 April 2021).

Lee, K. H., Isenhart, T. M. and Schultz, R. C. (2003) ‘Sediment and nutrient removal in an established multi-species riparian buffer’, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 58(1), pp. 1 LP – 8. Available at: http://www.jswconline.org/content/58/1/1.abstract.

Leighty, C. (1938) Crop rotation soils and men: yearbook of agriculture. USDA, Washington DC.

Lemaire, G. et al. (2014) ‘Integrated crop–livestock systems: Strategies to achieve synergy between agricultural production and environmental quality’, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 190, pp. 4–8. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.08.009.

Lichtenberg, E. M. et al. (2017) ‘A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes’, Global Change Biology, 23(11), pp. 4946–4957. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13714.

Liebman, M. and Dyck, E. (1993) ‘Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management’, Ecological Applications. doi: 10.2307/1941795.

Lisek, J. and Sas-Paszt, L. (2015) ‘Biodiversity of Weed Communities in Organic and Conventional Orchards’, Journal of Horticultural Research, 23(1), pp. 39–48. doi: 10.2478/johr-2015-0006.

Litterick, A. M. et al. (2004) ‘The role of uncomposted materials, composts, manures, and compost extracts in reducing pest and disease incidence and severity in sustainable temperate agricultural and horticultural crop production – A review’, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. doi: 10.1080/07352680490886815.

Loaiza Puerta, V. et al. (2018) ‘Improvement of soil structure through organic crop management, conservation tillage and grass-clover ley’, Soil and Tillage Research, 180, pp. 1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.still.2018.02.007.

Lokemoen, J. T. and Beiser, J. A. (1997) ‘Bird use and nesting in conventional, minimum-tillage, and organic cropland’, Journal of Wildlife Management, 61(3), pp. 644–655. doi: 10.2307/3802172.

Lori, M. et al. (2017) ‘Organic farming enhances soil microbial abundance and activity—A meta-analysis and meta-Regression’, PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180442.

Lososová, Z. et al. (2011) ‘Organic, integrated and conventional management in apple orchards: Effect on plant species composition, richness and diversity’, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 59(5), pp. 151–158. doi: 10.11118/actaun201159050151.

Luff, M. L. (1996) ‘Use of Carabids as environmental indicators in grasslands and cereals’, Annales Zoologici Fennici, 33(1), pp. 185–195.

Lynch, J. P. and Wojciechowski, T. (2015) ‘Opportunities and challenges in the subsoil: pathways to deeper rooted crops’, Journal of Experimental Botany, 66(8), pp. 2199–2210. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eru508.

Macfadyen, S., Gibson, R., Polaszek, A., et al. (2009) ‘Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?’, Ecology Letters, 12(3), pp. 229–238. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2008.01279.x.

Macfadyen, S., Gibson, R., Raso, L., et al. (2009) ‘Parasitoid control of aphids in organic and conventional farming systems’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 133(1–2), pp. 14–18. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2009.04.012.

MacLeod, M. et al. (2010) ‘Developing greenhouse gas marginal abatement cost curves for agricultural emissions from crops and soils in the UK’, Agricultural Systems, 103(4), pp. 198–209. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2010.01.002.

Mäder, P. et al. (2002) ‘Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming’, Science, 296(5573), pp. 1694–1697. doi: 10.1126/science.1071148.

Maltais-Landry, G. and Frossard, E. (2015) ‘Similar phosphorus transfer from cover crop residues and water-soluble mineral fertilizer to soils and a subsequent crop’, Plant and Soil, 393(1), pp. 193–205. doi: 10.1007/s11104-015-2477-6.

Marcroft, S. J. et al. (2004) ‘Crop isolation, not extended rotation length, reduces blackleg (<emph type=”2″>Leptosphaeria maculans</emph>) severity of canola (<emph type=”2″>Brassica napus</emph>) in south-eastern Australia’, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44(6), pp. 601–606. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1071/EA03087.

Marja, R. et al. (2014) ‘Environmentally friendly management as an intermediate strategy between organic and conventional agriculture to support biodiversity’, Biological Conservation, 178, pp. 146–154. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.08.005.

Marley, C. L. et al. (2003) ‘The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus)  on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected with helminth parasites.’, Veterinary parasitology, 112(1–2), pp. 147–155. doi: 10.1016/s0304-4017(02)00412-0.

Marley, C. L. et al. (2006) ‘The effects of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) when compared with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on ovine gastrointestinal parasite development, survival and migration’, Veterinary Parasitology, 138(3–4), pp. 280–290. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2006.01.029.

Marshall, E. J. P. and Moonen, A. C. (2002) ‘Field margins in northern Europe: Their functions and interactions with agriculture’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 89(1–2), pp. 5–21. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00315-2.

Martínez-Núñez, C. et al. (2020) ‘Low-intensity management benefits solitary bees in olive groves’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 57(1), pp. 111–120. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13511.

Masoni, A. et al. (2017) ‘Management matters: A comparison of ant assemblages in organic and conventional vineyards’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 246, pp. 175–183. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.05.036.

McCracken, D. I. and Tallowin, J. R. (2004) ‘Swards and structure: The interactions between farming practices and bird food resources in lowland grasslands’, Ibis, 146(SUPPL. 2), pp. 108–114. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.2004.00360.x.

McDaniel, M. D., Tiemann, L. K. and Grandy, A. S. (2014) ‘Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis’, Ecological Applications, 24(3), pp. 560–570. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0616.1.

Melander, B. et al. (2017) ‘Non-Chemical Weed Management’, in Hatcher, P. E. and Froud-Williams, R. J. (eds) Weed Research: Expanding Horizons. 527, Team Acrres,: Wiley, pp. 245–270. Available at: https://edepot.wur.nl/459013.

Meng, J. et al. (2016) ‘Biodiversity management of organic orchard enhances both ecological and economic profitability’, PeerJ, 4, p. e2137. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2137.

Miñarro, M. et al. (2009) ‘Organic versus conventional management in an apple orchard: effects of fertilization and tree-row management on ground-dwelling predaceous arthropods’, Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 11(2), pp. 133–142. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-9563.2008.00403.x.

Mols, C. M. M. and Visser, M. E. (2007) ‘Great Tits (Parus major) Reduce Caterpillar Damage in Commercial Apple Orchards’, PLoS ONE, 2(2), p. 202. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000202.

Mondelaers, K., Aertsens, J. and van Huylenbroeck, G. (2009) ‘A meta-analysis of the differences in environmental impacts between organic and conventional farming’, British Food Journal, 111(10), pp. 1098–1119. doi: 10.1108/00070700910992925.

Moss, S. and Lutman, P. (2013) ‘Black-grass: the potential of non-chemical control’, Rothamsted Research, (June), pp. 1–4.

Muller, A. et al. (2017) ‘Strategies for feeding the world more sustainably with organic agriculture’, Nature Communications, 8(1). doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01410-w.

Nascimbene, J., Marini, L. and Paoletti, M. G. (2012) ‘Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes’, Environmental Management, 49(5), pp. 1054–1060. doi: 10.1007/s00267-012-9834-5.

Neher, D. A., Weicht, T. R. and Dunseith, P. (2015) ‘Compost for Management of Weed Seeds, Pathogen, and Early Blight on Brassicas in Organic Farmer Fields’, Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 39(1), pp. 3–18. doi: 10.1080/21683565.2014.884516.

Nemecek, T. et al. (2008) ‘Environmental impacts of introducing grain legumes into European crop rotations’, European Journal of Agronomy. doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2007.11.004.

Nevens, F. and Reheul, D. (2003) ‘The application of vegetable, fruit and garden waste (VFG) compost in addition to cattle slurry in a silage maize monoculture: Nitrogen availability and use’, European Journal of Agronomy. doi: 10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00036-9.

Niggli, U. and Bensson, J.-M. (1996) ‘Landbausysteme im Langzeitversuch.’, Lebendige Erde, 3, pp. 185–189.

Norton, L. et al. (2009) ‘Consequences of organic and non-organic farming practices for field, farm and landscape complexity’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 129(1–3), pp. 221–227. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2008.09.002.

Parish, D. M. B. and Sotherton, N. W. (2004) ‘Game crops and threatened farmland songbirds in Scotland: A step towards halting population declines?’, Bird Study, 51(2), pp. 107–112. doi: 10.1080/00063650409461341.

Pesticide Action Network (2017) Alternative methods in weed management to the use of glyphospahte and other herbicides. Brussels. Available at: file:///C:/Users/youhe/Downloads/kdoc_o_00042_01.pdf.

Pfiffner, L. et al. (2001) ‘Contributions of Organic Farming to a Sustainable Environment.’, in Organic Food and Farming. Towards Partnership and Action in Europe. 10-11 May 2001. Copenhagen, pp. 115–123. Available at: https://orgprints.org/2943/1/pfiffner-2001-proceedings-copenhagen.pdf.

Pfiffner, L. and Balmer, O. (2011) Organic agriculture and biodiversity. FiBL Factsheet 1584. Frick. Available at: https://www.fibl.org/fileadmin/documents/shop/1548-biodiversity.pdf.

Pfiffner, L. and Niggli, U. (1996) ‘Effects of Bio-dynamic, Organic and Conventional Farming on Ground Beetles (Col. Carabidae) and Other Epigaeic Arthropods in Winter Wheat’, Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 12(4), pp. 353–364. doi: 10.1080/01448765.1996.9754758.

PGRO (2017) PGRO Pulse Agronomy Guide, 2017. Thornhaugh, Peterborough.

Ponce, C. et al. (2011) ‘Effects of organic farming on plant and arthropod communities: A case study in Mediterranean dryland cereal’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 141(1–2), pp. 193–201. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.02.030.

Popov, V. et al. (2018) ‘Causal relationship between biodiversity of insect population and agro-management in organic and conventional apple orchard’, Organic Agriculture, 8(4), pp. 355–370. doi: 10.1007/s13165-017-0202-x.

Potts, S. G. et al. (2009) ‘Enhancing pollinator biodiversity in intensive grasslands’, Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2009.01609.x.

Potts, S. G. et al. (2010) ‘Global pollinator declines: Trends, impacts and drivers’, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25(6), pp. 345–353. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2010.01.007.

Power, E. F. and Stout, J. C. (2011) ‘Organic dairy farming: impacts on insect–flower interaction networks and pollination’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 48(3), pp. 561–569. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01949.x.

Power, J. (1990) ‘Legumes and crop rotations’, in Francis, C. A., Flora, C. B., and King, L. D. (eds) Sustainable agriculture in temperate zones. New York: Wiley, pp. 187–204.

Preissel, S. et al. (2015) ‘Magnitude and farm-economic value of grain legume pre-crop benefits in Europe: A review’, Field Crops Research. Elsevier, pp. 64–79. doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2015.01.012.

Puig-Montserrat, X. et al. (2017) ‘Effects of organic and conventional crop management on vineyard biodiversity’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 243(April), pp. 19–26. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2017.04.005.

Rahmann, G. (2011) ‘Biodiversity and Organic farming: What do we know?’, Landbauforschung Volkenrode, 61, pp. 189–208.

Rigolot, C. et al. (2010) ‘Modelling of manure production by pigs and NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions. Part II: Effect of animal housing, manure storage and treatment practices’, Animal, 4(8), pp. 1413–1424. doi: 10.1017/S1751731110000509.

Rodrigues, M. A. et al. (2006) ‘Crops use-efficiency of nitrogen from manures permitted in organic farming’, European Journal of Agronomy, 25(4), pp. 328–335. doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2006.07.002.

Ros, M., Pascual, J. A., et al. (2006) ‘Hydrolase activities, microbial biomass and bacterial community in a soil after long-term amendment with different composts’, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38(12), pp. 3443–3452. doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.05.017.

Ros, M., Klammer, S., et al. (2006) ‘Long-term effects of compost amendment of soil on functional and structural diversity and microbial activity’, Soil Use and Management. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2006.00027.x.

Roschewitz, I. et al. (2005) ‘The effects of landscape complexity on arable weed species diversity in organic and conventional farming’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 42(5), pp. 873–882. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01072.x.

Rotchés-Ribalta, R. et al. (2015) ‘Which conditions determine the presence of rare weeds in arable fields?’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 203, pp. 55–61. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.01.022.

Rundlöf, M., Bengtsson, J. and Smith, H. G. (2008) ‘Local and landscape effects of organic farming on butterfly species richness and abundance’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 45(3), pp. 813–820. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2007.01448.x.

Rundlöf, M. and Smith, H. G. (2006) ‘The effect of organic farming on butterfly diversity depends on landscape context’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 43(6), pp. 1121–1127. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2006.01233.x.

Rydberg, N. T. and Milberg, P. (2000) ‘A survey of weeds in organic farming in Sweden’, Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 18(2), pp. 175–185. doi: 10.1080/01448765.2000.9754878.

Salou, T., Le Mouël, C. and van der Werf, H. M. G. (2017) ‘Environmental impacts of dairy system intensification: the functional unit matters!’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, pp. 445–454. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.019.

Sanders, J. (2013) Evaluation of the EU legislation on organic farming: Study Report., Thünen Institute of Farm economics. Braunschweig. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/evaluation/market-and-income-reports/2013/organic-farming/fulltext_en.pdf.

Sanders, J., Stolze, M., Padel, S. (eds.) (2011) Use and efficiency of public support measures addressing organic farming. Landbauforschung Sonderheft 339. Thünen Institut, Braunschweig.

Sanders, J. and Hess, J. (eds) (2019) Leistungen des ökologischen Landbaus für Umwelt und Gesellschaft. 2. überarbeitete und ergänzte Auflage., Thünen Report 65. Braunschweig: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut. doi: 10.3220/REP1576488624000.

Savory, A. and Butterfield, J. (1998) Holistic management: a new framework for decision making. Washington: Island Press.

Schmidt, M. H. and Tscharntke, T. (2005) ‘The role of perennial habitats for Central European farmland spiders’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 105(1–2), pp. 235–242. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2004.03.009.

Schurr, H. R. (2017) Not Just a Label: synergies and tradeoffs between social and ecological resilience in organic and conventional Michigan apple orchards, Jurnal Sains dan Seni ITS. University of Michigan. Available at: https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/136557/Schurr_Hailey_Thesis_2017.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.

Scialabba, N. E.-H. and Müller-Lindenlauf, M. (2010) ‘Organic agriculture and climate change’, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 2010/03/30, 25(2), pp. 158–169. doi: DOI: 10.1017/S1742170510000116.

Sharpley, A. and Moyer, B. (2000) ‘Phosphorus Forms in Manure and Compost and Their Release during Simulated Rainfall’, Journal of Environmental Quality, 29(6), p. 2053. doi: https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2000.00472425002900060056x.

Smith, H. G. et al. (2010) ‘Consequences of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity for species richness and abundance of farmland birds’, Oecologia, 162(4), pp. 1071–1079. doi: 10.1007/s00442-010-1588-2.

Smith, J. et al. (2011) ‘Organic Farming and Biodiversity: A review of the literature’, (February). Available at: http://www.organiccentrewales.org.uk/uploads/biodiversity_review_2011.pdf.

Smith, K. A. et al. (1998) ‘Organic manure phosphorus accumulation, mobility and management’, Soil Use and Management, 14(s4), pp. 154–159. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.1998.tb00634.x.

Smith, L. G., Williams, A. G. and Pearce, B. D. (2015) ‘The energy efficiency of organic agriculture’, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 30(3), pp. 280–301. doi: 10.2307/26335956.

Smith, R. G. et al. (2008) ‘Effects of Crop Diversity on Agroecosystem Function: Crop Yield Response’, Ecosystems, 11, pp. 355–366. doi: 10.1007/s10021-008-9124-5.

Smith, S. R. (2009) ‘A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge’, Environment International. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 142–156. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.06.009.

Soussana, J. F. and Lemaire, G. (2014) ‘Coupling carbon and nitrogen cycles for environmentally sustainable intensification of grasslands and crop-livestock systems’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 190, pp. 9–17. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.012.

Stagnari, F. et al. (2017) ‘Multiple benefits of legumes for agriculture sustainability: an overview’, Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture. doi: 10.1186/s40538-016-0085-1.

Stanley, D. A., Knight, M. E. and Stout, J. C. (2013) ‘Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex’, PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065516.

Steenfeldt, S. and Hammershøj, M. (2015) ‘Organic egg production. I: Effects of different dietary protein contents and forage material on organic egg production, nitrogen and mineral retention and total tract digestibility of nutrients of two hen genotypes’, Animal Feed Science and Technology. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.08.001.

Stein-Bachinger, B., Haub, A. and Gottwald, F. (2019) ‘Biodiversität’, in Sanders, J. and Hess, J. (eds) Leistungen des ökologischen Landbaus für Umwelt und Gesellschaft. Braunschweig: Thünen Institut, pp. 97–131. Available at: https://literatur.thuenen.de/digbib_extern/dn060722.pdf.

Stobart, R. M. (2011) ‘The impact of close rotation systems on the performance of oilseed rape.’, Aspects of Applied Biology, (No.106), pp. 209–212.

Stolze, M. et al. (2000) The Environmental Impacts of Organic Farming in Europe, Organic Farming in Europe: Economics and Policy Volume 6. Available at: http://orgprints.org/8400/1/Organic_Farming_in_Europe_Volume06_The_Environmental_Impacts_of_Organic_Farming_in_Europe.pdf.

Storkey, J. et al. (2011) ‘Modelling the ability of legumes to suppress weeds’, Aspects of Applied Biology, 109, pp. 53–58.

Südbeck, P. et al. (2005) Methodenstandards zur Erfassung der Brutvögel Deutschlands: Im Auftrag der Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft der Vogelschutzwarten und des Dachverbandes Deutscher Avifaunisten. Radolfszell.

Tejada, M. et al. (2008) ‘Application of a green manure and green manure composted with beet vinasse on soil restoration: Effects on soil properties’, Bioresource Technology. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.09.026.

Tejada, M., Hernandez, M. T. and Garcia, C. (2009) ‘Soil restoration using composted plant residues: Effects on soil properties’, Soil and Tillage Research. doi: 10.1016/j.still.2008.08.004.

Tonelli, M., Verdú, J. R. and Zunino, M. E. (2017) ‘Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub- mountainous landscape of Central Italy’, PeerJ, 2017(1), p. e2780. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2780.

Tscharntke, T. et al. (2005) ‘Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – Ecosystem service management’, Ecology Letters, 8(8), pp. 857–874. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00782.x.

Tscharntke, T. et al. (2012) Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biological Conservation 151, 53–59. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.068

Tuck, S. L. et al. (2014) ‘Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: A hierarchical meta-analysis’, Journal of Applied Ecology, 51(3), pp. 746–755. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12219.

Tuomisto, H. L. et al. (2012a) ‘Comparing energy balances, greenhouse gas balances and biodiversity impacts of contrasting farming systems with alternative land uses’, Agricultural Systems, 108, pp. 42–49. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2012.01.004.

Tuomisto, H. L. et al. (2012b) ‘Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? – A meta-analysis of European research’, Journal of Environmental Management, 112, pp. 309–320. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.018.

UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011) The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report., UNEP-WCMC. Cambridge. Available at: http://uknea.unep-wcmc.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=olWsaTXl4Ww%3D&tabid=82.

Ulber, L. et al. (2009) ‘An on-farm approach to investigate the impact of diversified crop rotations on weed species richness and composition in winter wheat’, Weed Research, 49(5), pp. 534–543. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2009.00722.x.

Venter, Z. S., Jacobs, K. and Hawkins, H. J. (2016) ‘The impact of crop rotation on soil microbial diversity: A meta-analysis’, Pedobiologia. Elsevier GmbH, pp. 215–223. doi: 10.1016/j.pedobi.2016.04.001.

Verbruggen, E. et al. (2010) ‘Positive effects of organic farming on below-ground mutualists: Large-scale comparison of mycorrhizal fungal communities in agricultural soils’, New Phytologist, 186(4), pp. 968–979. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03230.x.

Veronesi, F., Huyghe, C. and Delgado, I. (2006) ‘Lucerne Breeding in Europe : Results and Research Strategies for Future Developments’, Pastos 2006, (2), pp. 143–157.

Villa, M. et al. (2020) ‘Landscape composition and configuration affect the abundance of the olive moth (Prays oleae, Bernard) in olive groves’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 294(December 2018), p. 106854. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2020.106854.

Vogeler, I., Vibart, R. and Cichota, R. (2017) ‘Potential benefits of diverse pasture swards for sheep and beef farming’, Agricultural Systems. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2017.03.015.

Voisin, A. S. et al. (2014) ‘Legumes for feed, food, biomaterials and bioenergy in Europe: A review’, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34(2), pp. 361–380. doi: 10.1007/s13593-013-0189-y.

Watson, C. A. et al. (2005) ‘Perspectives on nutrient management in mixed farming systems’, Soil Use and Management, 21(1), pp. 132–140. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2005.tb00117.x.

Watson, C. A. et al. (2006) ‘Can organic farming deliver natural heritage goals in the {UK} uplands?’, Aspects of Applied Biology, (79), pp. 5–8.

Weibull, A. C., Östman, Ö. and Granqvist, Å. (2003) ‘Species richness in agroecosystems: The effect of landscape, habitat and farm management’, Biodiversity and Conservation. doi: 10.1023/A:1023617117780.

Wilhelm, B. (2016) ‘Funktionen und Regulierung von Ackerwildkräutern’, in Freyer, B. (ed.) Ökologischer Landbau: Grundlagen, Wissensstand und Herausforderungen. Bern, pp. 486–503.

Wilkins, R. J. (2008) ‘Eco-efficient approaches to land management: A case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 363(1491), pp. 517–525. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2167.

Wilkinson, I. (2017) Diverse swards, diverse benefits. Presentation by Cotswolds Seeds.

Williams, A. G., Audsley, E. and Sandars, D. L. (2006) Determining the environmental burdens and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commoditites. Main report., Main Report. Defra Research Project IS0205. Bedford: Cranfield University and Defra. Available on www.silsoe.cranfield.ac.uk, and www.defra.gov.uk.

Winqvist, C., Ahnström, J. and Bengtsson, J. (2012) ‘Effects of organic farming on biodiversity and ecosystem services: taking landscape complexity into account’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1249(1), pp. 191–203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06413.x.

Yeates, G. W. et al. (1997) ‘Faunal and Microbial Diversity in Three Welsh Grassland Soils Under Conventional and Organic Management Regimes’, The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34(2), p. 453. doi: 10.2307/2404890.

Van Zanten, B. T. et al. (2014) ‘European agricultural landscapes, common agricultural policy and ecosystem services: A review’, Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34(2), pp. 309–325. doi: 10.1007/s13593-013-0183-4.

Zaralis, K. et al. (2016) Technical Note 3: Use of diverse swards and ‘mob grazing’ for forage production. Newbury, UK. Available at: http://farmadvice.solidairy.eu/.

Base Theme
Accept Deny